From 3074 to 7702 - Reaching full 4337

Joan Alavedra
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EIP-3074, the Predecessor

EIP3074 was introduced to enhance the interaction between EOAs and smart contracts on Ethereum by introducing sponsored transactions.

Sponsored transactions are achieved through the introduction of two new opcodes, AUTH and AUTHCALL, which allow EOAs to delegate their authority to smart contracts, enabling more flexible and efficient transaction types.

EIP-3074 initially faced increasing security challenges and technical limitations.

Key issues included potential authorization abuses and consequent security vulnerabilities, particularly when dealing with large-scale or high-value transactions.


Enter EIP-7702

This proposal introduces a transaction type that EOAs to temporarily operate as smart contract wallets during transactions, reverting to their original state afterward.

Unlike EIP-3074, EIP-7702 incorporates mechanisms that are designed to be forward-compatible with standards like ERC-4337, supporting more sophisticated AA functionalities without overcomplicating the underlying architecture.

Core Mechanisms of EIP-7702

To allow EOAs to temporarily act as smart contracts, two main components are used:

Contract Code

The contract_code field in a transaction specifies the smart contract code that the EOA will execute, temporarily enhancing its capabilities.

This allows the EOA to perform operations that are typically exclusive to smart contracts, like executing multi-step transactions or interactions with other contracts.

Once a transaction completes, the EOA discards the temporary code, reverting to its original, simpler state to ensure security and maintain its standard functionality.


A standard Ethereum signature (using v, r, s) accompanies the transaction to verify the identity of the account holder and authorize the temporary transformation.

The signature secures the transaction against unauthorized actions and confirms the account holder's consent for the temporary enhancement.

Innovations and Potential of EIP-7702

EIP-7702 introduces significant innovations and advancements for AA:

- Enhanced Flexibility and Security: By allowing EOAs to act temporarily as smart contracts, EIP-7702 facilitates complex operations while maintaining the security and simplicity of traditional transactions.

- Reduction in Operational Complexity: This proposal simplifies transactions by reducing the need for multiple transaction steps and interactions, thereby decreasing gas costs and enhancing UX.

- Forward Compatibility: EIP-7702 prepares a better underlying architecture for future developments in account abstraction.

Final Thoughts

EIP-7702 represents a forward-thinking approach to solving existing challenges in Ethereum's account management and transaction execution.

By addressing the limitations of EIP-3074 and introducing robust mechanisms for account abstraction, the implementation of EIP-7702 in upcoming network upgrades, such as the Prague/Electra upgrade, remains promising.

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